Our local gophers are also called pocket gophers. They make their presence known with crescent shaped mounds of dirt in the garden. Snacking on plant and tree roots as they tunnel through the soil, they are active year round and can have up to three litters each season in well-watered areas. Gophers also gnaw on irrigation lines and divert water into their tunnels, making it difficult to properly water plants. Adults live about three years. Homeowners can use several methods to control them. Locating the main tunnel is the first step. Placing Macabee or Gophinator or box traps or poison baits are explained in detail in the UC Pest Note on Gophers. Another method involves excluding them with wire fencing. Ultrasonic devices and chewing gum have been tested and are not considered to be effective.